Week 6: Collective Action and Social Movements

Collective behavior describes the actions, thoughts and feelings of a relatively temporary and unstructured group of people. In contrast a social movement is a large ongoing group of people engaged in organized behavior designed to bring about or resist change in society. social action is the organized step taken by the mass by raising their voice and the elite group supporting them through social advocacy. mass represents the people and the elite represents the power.

Social movement is people get together to stand up for a social issue. These issues can be political, economic, cultural, etc. A social movement allows the people to voice their opinions on a public matter.

Social movement theorists in the 1970s and 1980s were particularly concerned with overcoming this dilemma: If collective action is so difficult to achieve, they asked, why do people participate in social movements at all? A well organized social movement organization can overcome collective action problems, they argued, by convincing people that they represent their interests.

The most influential theory of collective action to emerge during the turbulent 1960s was one which was inherently skeptical about the possibility of individuals working together to achieve a common goal. Mancur Olson’s The Logic of Collective Action (1965) argued that individuals do not rationally participate in collective action unless the benefits of their participation outweigh the costs. Participation in large groups occurs only rarely because the benefits received by individual participants is only an average of the total benefits received by the group. The average individual benefit is inversely related to the size of the group. Participation in a mass organization is, therefore, rarely a rational choice.








Week 6: Collective Action and Social Movements

Week 5: Online Advertising

Advertisement choice is an online marketing technique where viewers of videotaped content are allowed to choose the advertisement they want to watch during a commercial break. Online Advertising is a broad term used to describe the paid advertising that publishers put on their websites and mobile applications to enable them to provide you content and services for free. But now, online advertising become a common thing in people’s daily life. Online advertising will showed up during a movie, between apps, and on website pages.

Social networking remains the most popular online pastime for adults all over the world, and advertisers have evolved their strategies to target consumers where they spend their time, namely on social networks, such as Facebook and Twitter.

The retailer as: direct navigation, organic search, organic website link, search ad, coupon site, email marketing, social ad, or display ad. We now further classify each of these eight possible entry points according to the user data involved: “zero-party,” “first-party,” or “third-party.”

The benefits of third-party data for ad electiveness, advertisers and content providers have largely opposed do-not-track legislation, arguing that such bans would adversely impact their businesses and, in turn, harm consumers, a claim backed by recent academic work.

To better understand the extent to which content providers that show third-party advertising would be adversely a affected by privacy policies that limit or ban such ads, we consider their ability to generate revenue via alternative sources. To identify users as they move from site to site, third parties use technologies such as cookies, web beacons, e-tags and a variety of other tools. Cookies, widely used on desktop computers, are small pieces of code that are dropped on a user’s browser.





The History of Online Advertising


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Week 5: Online Advertising

week 4: Net Neutrality

Net neutrality is a new concept in my knowledge. So first let’s figure out what it is? Net neutrality, or open Internet, is the principle that Internet service providers (ISPs) should give consumers access to all legal content and applications on an equal basis, without favoring some sources or blocking others. It prohibits ISPs from charging content providers for speedier delivery of their content on “fast lanes” and deliberately slowing the content from content providers that may compete with ISPs.

The Internet has become so much a part of the lives of majority people in the world that it is easy to imagine that it will always remain the free and open medium it is now. Open net aim to ensure that all the Internet content you want to access,such as streaming video, audio or other material will be treated equally.

For government, profits and corporate disfavor of controversial viewpoints or competing services could change both what you can see on the Internet and the quality of your connection. For business owner, open net means to launch their businesses, create a market, advertise their products and services, and distribute products to customers.

The open Internet allows communities of color to tell their own stories and to organize for racial and social justice. To economic inequality and runaway media consolidation, people of color own just a handful of broadcast stations.






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week 4: Net Neutrality

Week 3 : Stress, Harassment, and Bullying on the Cyberspace

As Internet is the most popular thing in the world, that means there will have more problems come with that. Stress, harassment, and bullying are the heat words. Privacy is being redefined in the age of technology. Nissenbaum (2004) cites public surveillance as one of the most controversial challenges to privacy. She proposed a new benchmark for privacy termed “contextual integrity”. This means that the context dictates the appropriateness of information gathering and dissemination and the norms of distribution in that context. Norms of appropriateness dictate what information about individuals is appropriate to reveal in a certain context. Norms of flow or distribution of information govern the movement or transfer of information from one party to another.

Cyberbullying is defined as willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text and attacks victims by degrading, threatening and/or sexually explicit messages and images conveyed using web sites, instant messaging, blogs, chat rooms, cell phones, web sites, email, and personal online profiles (Shariff, 2006). Many terms are used to describe the phenomena including electronic bullying, ebullying, SMS bullying, mobile bullying, online bullying, digital bullying and Internet bullying (Privitera & Campbell, 2009). When minors are involved, cyberbullying is the term describing Cyber Harassment and when direct or implied physical harm to the targeted victim(s) is involved.

A privacy violation occurs whenever one of these norms is violated. That is the most stressful thing in people’s daily life. Cyberspace can change a person’s life. Such as people publish a video online, and some people watched it and share it to others, then it definitely effect and harassing person’s life. That cause people afraid to publish anything online.



Cyberspace Stress, Sabbath and Serenity



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Week 3 : Stress, Harassment, and Bullying on the Cyberspace