Week 14: Copyright and Intellectual Property

A wide body of federal and state laws protects creative property such as writing, music, drawings, paintings, photography, and films. Collectively, this body of law is called “intellectual property” law, which includes copyright, trademark, and patent laws, each applicable in various situations and each with its own set of technical rules. When obtaining permission to use creative works, you’re concerned primarily with copyright law. However, trademarks, trade secrets, and publicity and privacy rights sometimes come into play when permission to use certain types of works is sought.

Copyright. Original creative works such as paintings, writing, architecture, movies, software, photos, dance, and music are protected by federal copyright law. A work must meet certain minimum requirements to qualify for copyright protected. In the U.S., patents may be available to any person who “invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof.”  Patent protection must be sought by application with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

Intellectual property is something unique that you physically create. An idea alone is not intellectual property. For example, an idea for a book doesn’t count, but the words you’ve written do.

You own intellectual property if you:

  • created it (and it meets the requirements for copyright, a patentor a design)
  • bought intellectual property rights from the creator or a previous owner
  • have a brand that could be a trade mark, eg a well-known product name

You usually won’t own the intellectual property for something you created as part of your work while you were employed by someone else.



The Difference Between Copyright & Intellectual Property

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Week 14: Copyright and Intellectual Property

Week 13: A Networked Society: Where’s it going?

The shift from traditional mass media to a system of horizontal communication networks organized around the Internet and wireless communication has introduced a multiplicity of communication patterns at the source of a fundamental cultural transformation, as virtuality becomes an essential dimension of our reality

The network society itself is, in fact, the social structure which is characteristic of what people had been calling for years the information society or post-industrial society. Both “post-industrial society” and “information society” are descriptive terms that do not provide the substance, that are not analytical enough. So it’s not a matter of changing words; it’s providing substance. And the definition, in concrete terms of a network society is a society where the key social structures and activities are organized around electronically processed information networks. So it’s not just about networks or social networks, because social networks have been very old forms of social organization. It’s about social networks which process and manage information and are using micro-electronic based technologies.

The global economy is now characterized by the almost instantaneous flow and exchange of information, capital, and cultural communication. The smartphone as a user’s best friend in the urban jungle, helping people to take better advantage of what the city has to offer and making them better equipped to deal with unexpected eventualities. The networks themselves reflect and create distinctive cultures. Both they and the traffic they carry are largely outside national regulation. Our dependence on the new modes of informational flow gives to those in a position to control them enormous power to control us.



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Week 13: A Networked Society: Where’s it going?

Week 12: A Networked Society: Promises and Paradoxes

In recent years, the developed world has become accustomed to the idea and the reality of a globalized world, in which cultural, political, economic, and social trends circulate widely across a wide portion of the earth. The process of technological change, primarily driven by new technologies, including communications, travel, and digital technologies, and the increase in global interaction are deeply intertwined, making it difficult to sort out where one process begins and another ends.

The potential value of these factors in explaining pro-academic behavior and achievement and a challenging paradox that may be inherent to many available measures of non-cognitive skills. The promise is illustrated by the fact that our measures of non-cognitive skills are positively correlated with student attendance and behavior, state test scores, and test-score gains from fourth grade to eighth grade.

The critique that values cherished in a democracy can be lost in performance-based management, and its strengths and weaknesses are presented. It is also useful to note three additional and relevant counter-criticisms to the value-based critique of performance-based bureaucracy.




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Week 12: A Networked Society: Promises and Paradoxes

Week 11: Data, Data, and More Data

Big data is a term that describes the large volume of data – both structured and unstructured – that inundates a business on a day-to-day basis. But it’s not the amount of data that’s important. It’s what organizations do with the data that matters. Big data can be analyzed for insights that lead to better decisions and strategic business moves.

Data comes in all types of formats – from structured, numeric data in traditional databases to unstructured text documents, email, video, audio, stock ticker data and financial transactions.Variability is one of dimensions of big data. In addition to the increasing velocities and varieties of data, data flows can be highly inconsistent with periodic peaks. Is something trending in social media? Daily, seasonal and event-triggered peak data loads can be challenging to manage. Another one is complexity. Today’s data comes from multiple sources, which makes it difficult to link, match, cleanse and transform data across systems. However, it’s necessary to connect and correlate relationships, hierarchies and multiple data linkages or your data can quickly spiral out of control.

The world contains an unimaginably vast amount of digital information which is getting ever vaster ever more rapidly. This makes it possible to do many things that previously could not be done: spot business trends, prevent diseases, combat crime and so on. Managed well, the data can be used to unlock new sources of economic value, provide fresh insights into science and hold governments to account.

The amount of data that’s being created and stored on a global level is almost inconceivable, and it just keeps growing. That means there’s even more potential to glean key insights from business information – yet only a small percentage of data is actually analyzed.




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Week 11: Data, Data, and More Data