In recent years, the developed world has become accustomed to the idea and the reality of a globalized world, in which cultural, political, economic, and social trends circulate widely across a wide portion of the earth. The process of technological change, primarily driven by new technologies, including communications, travel, and digital technologies, and the increase in global interaction are deeply intertwined, making it difficult to sort out where one process begins and another ends.
The potential value of these factors in explaining pro-academic behavior and achievement and a challenging paradox that may be inherent to many available measures of non-cognitive skills. The promise is illustrated by the fact that our measures of non-cognitive skills are positively correlated with student attendance and behavior, state test scores, and test-score gains from fourth grade to eighth grade.
The critique that values cherished in a democracy can be lost in performance-based management, and its strengths and weaknesses are presented. It is also useful to note three additional and relevant counter-criticisms to the value-based critique of performance-based bureaucracy.
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