Week 8: Extended Interactivity: User-generated Content

User-generated content (UGC) is defined as any form of content such as blogs, wikis, discussion forums, posts, chats, tweets, podcasts, digital images, video, audio files, advertisements and other forms of media that was created by users of an online system or service, often made available via social media websites.

There is a long history of audience involvement in news production, from letters to the editor and readers’ photos, to radio and television phone-ins, and texts from viewers being shown at the bottom of the screen.

For many producers and editors, user generated content is seen – and often treated – as a continuation of this tradition. However, there are two key features of user generated content online that make it a qualitatively different proposition.

Firstly, unlike print and broadcast, on the web users do not need to send something to the mainstream media for it to be distributed to an audience: a member of the public can upload a video to YouTube with the potential to reach millions. They can share photos with people all over the world. They can provide unedited commentary on any topic they choose, and publish it, regularly, on a forum or blog.

In redeploying resources from print to online, newspapers not only have altered longstanding patterns of news production, but they also have opened the “gates,” in many cases, to user-generated content—enabling, if not always embracing, such things as comments, photos/videos, reader blogs, and even reader-assembled news articles. This evolving spectrum of user contributions to news content can be generically referred to as “citizen journalism” .What arises, then, is a tension for newspaper journalism in the 21st century: the practical logic of building participatory platforms to attract greater communities of users, for economic survival as well as to foster greater civic dialogue, against the professional logic of retaining authority over information flow.


What is User Generated Content?


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Week 8: Extended Interactivity: User-generated Content

Week 7: Gaming and Other Computer Use for Entertainment

Today’s consumers enjoy having an exciting world of interactive entertainment at their fingertips. From playing games online, to first-person shooter games on their video game console, to becoming heavy users of social games on their tablets and smartphones, gamers now spend more time playing games than streaming movies or television shows to their computer, phone, and game consoles.

One of the key differences between a console and a personal computer are the input devices used to play the game. A personal computer mainly makes use of a keyboard and mouse or even a touch screen, whilst a console will use a dedicated gamepad or other device.

Many video games are aimed for young adults and so could be criticized for isolating you from family and friends for many hours. In China, more and more young people playing video games for hours. Those young adults’s behavior become more and more strange. And not go to school, become angry, and always fight with people. They assume they are the hero in video games. That makes more problem teenagers in the society. Parents should control what their kids are playing.




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Week 7: Gaming and Other Computer Use for Entertainment

Week 6: Collective Action and Social Movements

Collective behavior describes the actions, thoughts and feelings of a relatively temporary and unstructured group of people. In contrast a social movement is a large ongoing group of people engaged in organized behavior designed to bring about or resist change in society. social action is the organized step taken by the mass by raising their voice and the elite group supporting them through social advocacy. mass represents the people and the elite represents the power.

Social movement is people get together to stand up for a social issue. These issues can be political, economic, cultural, etc. A social movement allows the people to voice their opinions on a public matter.

Social movement theorists in the 1970s and 1980s were particularly concerned with overcoming this dilemma: If collective action is so difficult to achieve, they asked, why do people participate in social movements at all? A well organized social movement organization can overcome collective action problems, they argued, by convincing people that they represent their interests.

The most influential theory of collective action to emerge during the turbulent 1960s was one which was inherently skeptical about the possibility of individuals working together to achieve a common goal. Mancur Olson’s The Logic of Collective Action (1965) argued that individuals do not rationally participate in collective action unless the benefits of their participation outweigh the costs. Participation in large groups occurs only rarely because the benefits received by individual participants is only an average of the total benefits received by the group. The average individual benefit is inversely related to the size of the group. Participation in a mass organization is, therefore, rarely a rational choice.








Week 6: Collective Action and Social Movements

Week 5: Online Advertising

Advertisement choice is an online marketing technique where viewers of videotaped content are allowed to choose the advertisement they want to watch during a commercial break. Online Advertising is a broad term used to describe the paid advertising that publishers put on their websites and mobile applications to enable them to provide you content and services for free. But now, online advertising become a common thing in people’s daily life. Online advertising will showed up during a movie, between apps, and on website pages.

Social networking remains the most popular online pastime for adults all over the world, and advertisers have evolved their strategies to target consumers where they spend their time, namely on social networks, such as Facebook and Twitter.

The retailer as: direct navigation, organic search, organic website link, search ad, coupon site, email marketing, social ad, or display ad. We now further classify each of these eight possible entry points according to the user data involved: “zero-party,” “first-party,” or “third-party.”

The benefits of third-party data for ad electiveness, advertisers and content providers have largely opposed do-not-track legislation, arguing that such bans would adversely impact their businesses and, in turn, harm consumers, a claim backed by recent academic work.

To better understand the extent to which content providers that show third-party advertising would be adversely a affected by privacy policies that limit or ban such ads, we consider their ability to generate revenue via alternative sources. To identify users as they move from site to site, third parties use technologies such as cookies, web beacons, e-tags and a variety of other tools. Cookies, widely used on desktop computers, are small pieces of code that are dropped on a user’s browser.





The History of Online Advertising


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Week 5: Online Advertising

week 4: Net Neutrality

Net neutrality is a new concept in my knowledge. So first let’s figure out what it is? Net neutrality, or open Internet, is the principle that Internet service providers (ISPs) should give consumers access to all legal content and applications on an equal basis, without favoring some sources or blocking others. It prohibits ISPs from charging content providers for speedier delivery of their content on “fast lanes” and deliberately slowing the content from content providers that may compete with ISPs.

The Internet has become so much a part of the lives of majority people in the world that it is easy to imagine that it will always remain the free and open medium it is now. Open net aim to ensure that all the Internet content you want to access,such as streaming video, audio or other material will be treated equally.

For government, profits and corporate disfavor of controversial viewpoints or competing services could change both what you can see on the Internet and the quality of your connection. For business owner, open net means to launch their businesses, create a market, advertise their products and services, and distribute products to customers.

The open Internet allows communities of color to tell their own stories and to organize for racial and social justice. To economic inequality and runaway media consolidation, people of color own just a handful of broadcast stations.






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week 4: Net Neutrality

Week 3 : Stress, Harassment, and Bullying on the Cyberspace

As Internet is the most popular thing in the world, that means there will have more problems come with that. Stress, harassment, and bullying are the heat words. Privacy is being redefined in the age of technology. Nissenbaum (2004) cites public surveillance as one of the most controversial challenges to privacy. She proposed a new benchmark for privacy termed “contextual integrity”. This means that the context dictates the appropriateness of information gathering and dissemination and the norms of distribution in that context. Norms of appropriateness dictate what information about individuals is appropriate to reveal in a certain context. Norms of flow or distribution of information govern the movement or transfer of information from one party to another.

Cyberbullying is defined as willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text and attacks victims by degrading, threatening and/or sexually explicit messages and images conveyed using web sites, instant messaging, blogs, chat rooms, cell phones, web sites, email, and personal online profiles (Shariff, 2006). Many terms are used to describe the phenomena including electronic bullying, ebullying, SMS bullying, mobile bullying, online bullying, digital bullying and Internet bullying (Privitera & Campbell, 2009). When minors are involved, cyberbullying is the term describing Cyber Harassment and when direct or implied physical harm to the targeted victim(s) is involved.

A privacy violation occurs whenever one of these norms is violated. That is the most stressful thing in people’s daily life. Cyberspace can change a person’s life. Such as people publish a video online, and some people watched it and share it to others, then it definitely effect and harassing person’s life. That cause people afraid to publish anything online.



Cyberspace Stress, Sabbath and Serenity



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Week 3 : Stress, Harassment, and Bullying on the Cyberspace

Week 2: Understanding Digital Natives

With even more advanced multi media services becoming available, the types of services used will be more innovative. Digital Natives have an inherent understanding of digital technologies, as they’ve been integrated into their lives since early childhood.

For digital natives, the internet, mobility, and related technologies have always been available. Networked media and communication make up the foundation of their lives.They are used to the immediacy of hypertext, downloaded music, phones in their pockets – which are on 24/7; a library on their laptops/ computers, and connectivity anytime, anywhere.

According to French polling institute BVA published an enlightening survey of this generation: between 18-24 years of age, born with a mouse and a keyboard, and now permanently tied to their smartphone. All of it shaping their vision of an unstable world. The study is titled GENE-TIC for Generation and Technology of Information and Communication.

A typical 21-year-old has, on average: sent and received 250,000 e-mails, instant messages, and SMS (short message service) text messages used a mobile phone for 10,000 hours played video games for 5,000 hours spent 3,500 hours social networking online.

This higher level of experience, knowledge and information resulting from consistent use of digital media has also impacted purchasing behaviors, as consumers become increasingly educated and empowered. The changing nature of human relationships is second nature to some, and learned behavior to others.






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Week 2: Understanding Digital Natives